Bikeshare Could Roll in Marin

Marin may join San Francisco, New York, and Paris in establishing a bikeshare system.

Recently, the Transportation Authority of Marin released a request for proposal allocating $25,000 to study whether Marin is suitable for a bikeshare system, and where it should go. If Marin eventually does develop its own system, it will join Montreal, London, Paris, New York, Minneapolis and many other cities in implementing such a system.

The RFP itself is not terribly interesting, though you can read it if you like. It’s also not terribly intriguing that TAM is investigating bikeshare, as the authority has a history of investigating a wide variety of projects, no matter the project’s feasibility. What is intriguing is that this comes as the Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD) is preparing to launch a bikeshare system with San Francisco, San Jose, Mountain View, Palo Alto and Redwood City; as SMART is under construction; as the Plan Bay Area gets into full swing; and as a bikemaggeddon is preparing to land in Sausalito with the America’s Cup. Each of these could push bikeshare to the front of Marin’s mind and make it likely the system will actually be built.

What the devil is bikeshare?

The first successful system in the United States was Washington, D.C.’s Capital Bikeshare, or CaBi for short, and it’s been replicated across the country since its rollout in 2010. Subscriptions are fairly cheap: $7 for a day, $15 for a week, $25 for a month, and $75 for a year. A subscriber takes a bike out of a station and can dock the bike at any other station. The trip is free for the first 30 minutes but there’s a fee if the bike is out for longer. Although it starts fairly nominal, the fee increases quite a bit once a trip goes longer than an hour. The point is to get the bikes circulating, to replace single trips that might be too short for transit or too long on foot. DC’s tourists use the system all the time, and it’s quite common to see families riding along the National Mall atop the striking red bikes.

DC’s residents use the system all the time. Riding a bike in the city is just as fast as using a car and, for short trips, faster than taking the subway. It keeps riders active, pays for itself after a month’s use, is flexible and efficient. It reintroduces people to bicycling and opens the city in a way the bus and metro never had. Now neighboring cities are clamoring to join the CaBi system, while neighborhoods in DC are constantly fighting for new stations.

Not to say that CaBi doesn’t have problems. Bikeshare depends on users circulating the bikes around from station to station. Nothing’s worse than finding an empty bikeshare station when you want a bike or a full station when you need to park (you can get your time extended if the station is full). Stations, therefore, need to be tightly packed so that if one station is empty or full, the next one isn’t too distant. In Paris, the stations are sometimes no more than a block apart and don’t dissipate into the suburbs – there’s a hard boundary. In DC, the stations are rather further spaced apart, which works reasonably well though being “dock-blocked”, as it is known, still happens with maddening frequency. The city contracts with a company to manually move bikes from full stations to empty ones, but it’s not quite enough. More stations, bikes, and members would go a long way to improving circulation around the system.

The Bay Area’s plan

BAAQMD is spearheading the San Francisco plan to establish a bikeshare system in the northeastern quadrant of the city and in isolated pockets along the Caltrain corridor. Its centerpiece is the downtown San Francisco segment, centered around Market Street, which will include 500 bikes at 50 stations spaced 300 yards apart. It’s set to open this summer, just in time for the America’s Cup, which will bring a flood of tourists to the city – tourists that will undoubtedly flock to bikeshare. 

The District argues that bicycles can function as an extension of the transit network, but don't because transporting them on regional transit agencies is discouraged. Bicycles are not allowed on BART during commute hours, and are limited on Caltrain. The Warm Planet bike shop at Caltrain’s Fourth & King depot is over capacity, and transit is largely maxed out around Market during the commute.

face similar problems on GGT’s commuter buses and ferries, especially coming from Sausalito. Having a bike ready for anyone in the commercial heart of the city (not to mention the other commercial hubs along Caltrain) will give commuters a solution, allowing them to easily transfer to bicycles in the city without the need to fret over getting a bike to and from work. A bikeshare system would also free a commuter to bike to work but not from it, or vice versa, if they don’t want to arrive at either end a little sweaty. This encourages more bicycle use, more transit use, and, therefore, less driving.

Eyeballing Marin’s bikeshare suitability

Marin’s central and southern communities are ideally suited to the bicycle. Commercial districts are close to one another and housing, meaning most residents are well within biking distance of at least one downtown. Bikes are also better suited than the bus to traverse sprawling Novato or Terra Linda and can be a car replacement for most trips elsewhere.

Yet Marin is not terribly dense, promoting car-centricity, and has relatively mediocre bicycle infrastructure: some of the county’s major thoroughfares entirely inhospitable to bikes or pedestrians.  As well, more than anywhere else in the Bay Area, Marin is linear, with narrow valleys branching off the equally narrow 101 corridor. The ideal grid, with its redundancies and infinite rerouting, is impossible over Marin’s ridges. This isolates communities to their benefit and detriment, and makes cycling more difficult than it is in DC’s suburbs – it’s fairly difficult to ride from Fairfax to Lucas Valley despite the fact that it’s only as far as downtown San Rafael, as the crow flies.

Marin’s employment corridor is Highway 101. Though office and retail exist in the downtowns tucked away from the freeway, the highest density of employment is along that central spine. Those that don’t work along the corridor likely work in San Francisco, also down the corridor.

Bikeshare needs strong bicycling infrastructure to ensure there is a good way to ride from place to place, population density to keep the system running throughout the day and decentralized commute patterns to ensure certain areas don’t get overloaded as everyone goes to them or denuded as everyone leaves them. At first blush, Marin misses all three of these criteria, but it’s not enough to convince me Marin is unsuitable to bikeshare. Those well-spread downtowns lend themselves to bicycling, and other systems, like CaBi, have had success in areas with density similar to ours.

I also want bikeshare to succeed in Marin. Beyond the health, environmental, cost, and traffic benefits, bikeshare would reap political benefits for the county’s urban cycling infrastructure. Transportation debates in the county are dominated by the driver’s voice, as most Marinites are drivers first and cyclists second. Bicycle improvements, then, play second fiddle to parking, roads and other projects that maintain or strengthen our reliance on the automobile. When bicycling does enter the debate, focus is often on its recreational aspects rather than its functionality as everyday transportation. Since bikeshare is unabashedly functional, growing its membership means growing a political base to advocate for cycling and pedestrian improvements.

I’m excited to see what TAM’s study will show – Marin could reap so many rewards with a successful system. With luck, the study will find that Marin is suitable to join with San Francisco and BAAQMD in moving to a cleaner, healthier, bike-centric future.

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David Edmondson March 22, 2012 at 03:35 PM
UPDATE: The BAAQMD system has been delayed until August at least, both to allow bidding companies to better meet the District's bid requirements, and to allow for enough time to roll out the system. It wasn't an issue of funding, just practicality.
Bob Ratto March 22, 2012 at 08:47 PM
Dave You should do this!...You have probably already done the majority of the work that is requested in the proposal, you understand what does and doesn't work, go for it.
David Edmondson March 23, 2012 at 04:11 AM
I think I'll leave it to the professionals - they can do much more in-depth work than I can on my lonesome, though I would not complain if they wanted me on their team!
Alex Zwissler March 24, 2012 at 04:02 PM
Thanks Dave...I learned a lot here.
Kevin Moore March 24, 2012 at 06:12 PM
In Asia, the evolution has been bicycles, motor scooters, cars. When we look at transportation, we see cars or bicycles; completely overlooking light motor scooters. I've been riding motorcycles for 42 years. My uncle rode scooters until he was 86. But motorcycles are not for everyone. Electrically powered bicycles could be popular for wider group. Hills, distance, and carrying capacity are the killers of expanding bicycle use. Davis, CA has been a leader in bicycle use as it is flat as a pancake. I would be curios to see how a small group of electrically powered bicycles would fare in the bike share program. Batteries are half of the expense, but some systems are modular, so a rider could walk up, drop in a battery pack and ride to the destination with power assist. Plug in the battery pack to a solar recharging station when done or take your battery pack home to recharge. At this time electric bicycles are mostly a nitch market. I see them becoming much more popular over time. Not breaking a sweat may seem lazy, but can be very important going to work or shopping for clothes. This might be an area you want to explore.
David Edmondson March 24, 2012 at 08:00 PM
That's an interesting idea - electric bikeshare. It would probably be significantly more expensive to implement, and therefore to become a member of, but it would make navigating some of the hilly routes significantly easier. That said, hills don't seem to be too much of a barrier to the adoption of bicycling. San Francisco has seen an explosion of riding - increases in the double-digits - despite its monstrous hills. It's the infrastructure, and the culture, that determines whether cycling is just for fun or is a serious transportation mode.
Rico March 25, 2012 at 12:49 AM
Over in Berkeley, they have an informal bike share program at the University. They have a bunch of old clunker bikes that they let people use, park and leave to let someone else to use. It is very informal, and a student told me that there is usually an extra bike parked for people that need it. The bikes are simple, so no one will bother to steal them. Electric bicycles are cool. I am going to be building one myself soon. But, what I want to build will not be street legal unless I register it as a motorcycle, and I would never let just anyone share it. The electric bike that I will build will be strictly for off road recreational use only, and I would never bring it into town and leave it parked, it would get stolen in minutes. I want to ease into electric vehicles starting with bicycles and see how it pans out. I figure, even the lowest cost electric bike for normal commuting would cost around $3000, but what I want would be much more. An electric bike is like a portable exercise machine, one can set the power level of the pedal assist, so they can get a good workout when wanted, but fly up hill on Mt. Tam like a blur. An electric bike can be ridden on any trail where a bicycle is allowed, but I know that powerbikes can be dangerous to myself and others. The main thing is, don't do dangerous stunts and cause complaints, and be respectful of everyone else using the trails.
Kevin Moore March 25, 2012 at 07:46 PM
From Fisherman's Warf to downtown to South of Market; I can see bicycles being very popular. Going from downtown to Golden Gate Park without using a bus or trolley, not so much. As you stated, hills are a barrier. (FYI: Fairfax to Lucas Valley - Fawn drive to Frietas Parkway to Del Ganado to Lucas Valley is the best route. Still requires a good climb or two.) By adding electric bicycles, you get a group that is more reluctant to pedal. Also, you increase the range. Most people can't show up for work dripping in sweat. Electric bicycles can be found for about $400 retail, without any volume discount. The entire fleet should not be electric, but a few electric bikes in the fleet would be interesting. What is the cost per bicycle for the bikes in the pictures? DMV - Electric bicycles http://www.dmv.ca.gov/pubs/vctop/d12/vc24016.htm
Kevin Moore March 25, 2012 at 07:49 PM
Ricardo - I am looking into building my first electric bicycle too. Most likely using a mtn bike with a brushless hub. Looking into 24v vs 48v motors to see which is best. I just want a light weight boost. It will be somewhere between what you are building and what a ride share electric bicycle would be. http://endless-sphere.com/forums/ This is said to be one of the better electric bicycle forums. Oddly enough, one of the moderators lives down the street from me. http://motorbicycling.com/ Another good forum, more gas engine related.
Kevin Moore March 25, 2012 at 10:01 PM
I see an electric bike only need go from the downtown bus/train station to the Miracle Mile. Not that far and a lot of coasting back to the station. I have a Zappy Electric folding scooter and it will go 6.5 miles on a charge. (I know, died at the end of my commute.) It was $425 back when these scooters were the only ones available. If i had to go a few miles from a bus, ferry or train,; I would bring it. I plan on building my own electric bicycle. I'm deciding between 24v and 48v wireless brush hub motors. I just want an assist for the uphill sections without too much weight. What sources are you using for doing your research? Endless sphere com seems like a good resource.
David Edmondson March 26, 2012 at 03:15 AM
@Kevin The bikes cost around $1,000 apiece, though that feels high to me. They completely enclose all the cables and the chain, come with a 5-year warranty, and safety lights powered by the wheels' motion.
Rico March 26, 2012 at 02:54 PM
Thanks Kevin, I joined endless sphere. All that stupp is very complicated when it comes to the electronics. I test drove a friend of mine's E+ electric bike last year. It has a 1000 watt brushless hub motor in the rear, and a 10 ah NiMh battery in the front hub.. I really want one of those bikes, but the company went out of business. I called them and they still have a few of the bikes that I want left. I really want to buy a bike ready to ride, so I might just buy one from them for around $2500. Have you heard about the new 4 inch motors that put out 20 hp ? I was also considering a Cyclone kit, 1200 watt direct chain drive (around $400) with a 36 volt 13.2 ah LIPo 4 battery pack with BMP (around $600) A good place to buy batteries for Ebikes is batteryspace.com
Rico March 26, 2012 at 02:54 PM
All that stuff.
Kevin Moore March 26, 2012 at 04:35 PM
The $1000 price for those bikes is way high. (Unless the components are really really top notch, they are paying for a unique step through frame that doesn't say "woman's bike" and sticks out like a sore thumb when stolen. Chain guards and fenders can easily be purchased. I'm sure they are a lot more common in Europe and Asia. Pretty good bikes can be had for about $400. Rust never sleeps and the damp marine air is really a killer of bicycles and motorcycles stored outdoors around here.
David Edmondson March 26, 2012 at 04:50 PM
Don't forget that these bikes are meant for almost constant use and abuse for years. The average car is in use only about 5% of its lifespan, and I can't imagine a bike used for everyday transportation is used much more, so the bikeshare bike needs to be rugged as hell, and it certainly feels like it.
Greg Nudd March 26, 2012 at 05:39 PM
A bike sharing system would be a good way to link the southern terminus of SMART with the Larkspur ferry terminal. It's a short, flat ride through the tunnel. Easy enough to do in your work clothes.
Anto August 01, 2012 at 09:14 AM
Electric Bike share would be excellent. It's just so practical and would take so many cars off the road in cities. There's a forum here http://www.motoredbikes.com with some good info on powered bikes.
Rico August 01, 2012 at 07:12 PM
Anto, There is a company in Sausalito that assembles electric cargo bikes. They sell for around $2,600. Those cargo bikes would actually help take cars off of the road (for people that live in the flatlands), but the other electric bikes are probably not going to take many cars off of the roads, not for people who own their own businesses or need to do shopping trips. Electric bikes are more for recreation and sport than anything else.


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